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J Korean Acad Pediatr Dent. 1999;26(2): 377-398.
THE EFFECT OF ND:YAG LASER IRRADIATION ON THE FORMATION OF CALCIUM FLUORIDE AND ACID RESISTANCE OF TOOTH ENAMEL
이제호1, 손흥규1, 김성오1, 박광균2, 최병재1
1연세대학교 치과대학 소아치과학교실
2연세대학교 치과대학 구강생물학교실
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ABSTRACT
Calcium fluoride, created by topical fluoride application, is the reservoir for fluoride ion regulated by pH in the oral environment. Therefore, the amount and the maintenance of calcium fluoride have an important role in preventing dental caries. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of Nd:YAG laser irradiation on the generation of calcium fluoride and the acid resistance of tooth enamel. The bovine anterior permanent teeth were prepared (n=276), and divided into following groups : no treatment (control) fluoride application alone, laser irradiation alone, laser irradiation after fluoride application, and fluoride application after laser irradiation. And each group was subdivided based on the application time of 1.23% acidulated phosphate fluoride (APF) (5 min and 30 min) and the irradiation energy of Nd:YAG laser (20J/cm2 and 40J/cm2). In case of fluoride application, each group was divided according to KOH treatment. Twenty three treatment conditions were made for this experiment and twelve specimens were assigned to each treatment condition. In each treatment condition, ten specimens were used for chemical analysis and two specimens were observed under SEM. In groups without treating KOH, fluoride content and the depth of enamel dissolved were measured using enamel biopsy technique. In groups with treating KOH, the amount of calcium fluoride was measured by the treatment with 1 M KOH for 24 hours and enamel biopsy was performed after KOH treatment. The results were analyzed by the fluoride content and the depth of enamel dissolved by enamel biopsy, amount and thickness of calcium fluoride, and the surface structures of enamel. The results are as follows: 1. In groups without treating KOH, the fluoride content of removed enamel showed a positive relationship with the energy density of laser when the laser irradiated before fluoride application 2. In groups without treating KOH, the depth of enamel dissolved decreased more with the combined laser and fluoride treatment than with laser or fluoride treatment, except for the case of 20J/cm2 laser irradiation after 5 minute fluoride application (p<0.05). 3. The amount of calcium fluoride did not increased by laser treatment with no statistical significance(p>0.05). 4. The particle size of calcium fluoride increased in case of fluoride treatment after laser irradiation, compared with fluoride application alone. In case of laser treatment after fluoride application, the particle size of calcium fluoride increased and some of the particles fused as well. 5. There were no significant differences in the fluoride content of dissolved enamel between groups without treating KOH and control group, except for the case of laser irradiation after treatment of APF for 30 minutes (p>0.05). 6. In groups with treating KOH, depth of removed enamel in the groups of combined treatment with laser and fluoride was shallower than that in fluoride application groups (p<0.05). 7. In groups without treating KOH, the relationship between fluoride content and the depth of enamel dissolved showed more negative (Spearman correlation coefficient: -0.6281) than in groups with treating KOH (Spearman correlation coefficient: -0.3792). The greater amount of calcium fluoride could be found in case where there was a significant differences of the depth of enamel dissolved between groups with and without treating KOH. From these results, it can be concluded that laser seems to be a little effects on the amount of calcium fluoride formation, but has some effect on the lowering the solubility of calcium fluoride. As the combined treatment of laser and fluoride application showed more effective acid-resistant property, more extended recall period for fluoride application can be achieved with this combined treatment in the clinic.
Keywords: acid-resistance | calcium fluoride | enamel biopsy | fluoride application | KOH | Nd:YAG laser
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