Journal of the Korean Academy of Pediatric Dentistry 2001;28(3):441-446.
Published online August 31, 2001.
Clinical Trial of Nasal Flumazenil Administration
 
Abstract
Flumazenil is a competitive antagonist of benzodiazepines. It is usually administered intravenously. However, if the intravenous route is not available then other routes of drug administration should be considered. This study was designed to evaluate the reversal effects of flumazenil after nasal administration. Twenty-five young, healthy adult volunteers participated in this clinical trial. The dosage of 0.08mg/kg midazolam was administered intravenously to induce deep sedation. Ten minutes after midazolam administration, 0.5mg of flumazenil was dropped nasally, over a period of one minute. Blood samples were taken to measure the concentration of midazolam and flumazenil at 0, 5, 10, and 20min after nasal administration of flumazenil, using High Performance Liquid Chromatography. The degree of sedation was evaluated with sedation score and bispectral index (BIS), Statistical analysis was performed by multivariate ANOVA and correlation analysis (P<0.05). Peak serum flumazenil concentration was reached in 10min. Sedation score decreased after midazolam administration and showed a significant increase after flumazenil administration. However, BIS decreased during the first 10min after midazolam administration and then no significant changes after flumazenil administration. There were two instances representing rapid and complete reversal of midazolam after intranasal administration of flumazenil. In conclusion, intranasal flumazenil administration may be effective in some patients when intravenous route is not available in condition of benzodiazepine overdose.
Key Words: flumazenil, intranasal administration, benzodiazepines, chromatography
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